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Education Based Incarceration - 2nd Edition - Text version for translation

Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department
2nd Edition
EDUCATION BASED INCARCERATION

Individualized Education Plans Moral Recognition Therapy (MRT) Electronic Digital Learning System Future Enhancements Utilizing Technology Inmate E-mail Personal  Audio Device Kiosk Life Skills Programs Art Program Domestic Violence Prevention Drug Education Job Preparation Parent Education Personal Relations Resource  Fair Returning Hearts Teaching and Loving Kids (TALK) Multidisciplinary Treatment Modules K-9 Dog Program Maximizing Education Reaching Individual Transformation    (MERIT) Striving for Transformation through Education and Personal Success (MERIT-STEPS) Women Investing in Success through Education (MERIT-WISE) Social Mentoring  Academic and Rehabilitative Training (SMART) Stop Hate and Respect Everyone (SHARE) IMPACT Drug and Alcohol Treatment Center Getting out By Going I (GOGI) Incarcerated  Parenting Program (IPP) Gender Responsive Rehabilitation (GRR) Autobody Repair Combination Welder Commercial Floor Layer Commercial Painting Commercial Sewing Computer Operations Culinary Arts and Hospitality Custodial Building Maintenance Masonry and Commercial Construction Office Occupations Telecommunications - Directory  Assistance Operator Jail Enterprises Training Programs Animal Pet Grooming/Animal Caretaker Bicycle Repair Commercial Embroidery Commercial Nursery Operations Landscaping and Grounds keeping Graphic Arts/Sign Fabrication LASD and Non-LASD Station Jail’s Inmate Meal Program Printing Occupations Plastic Bag Manufacturing Occupations  School Lunch Program Woodworking Religious and Volunteer Services Unit 12-Step Programs A Purpose Driven Life Family Outreach Program Friends Outside  Funeral / Hospital Visits God in Our Mist Inmate Marriages Multi-Denominational Services Orientations Security Clearances Spiritual Growth Community Transition Unit  Community Partnerships Community Partners Acton Recovery Center Amity Foundation Antelope Valley Rehabilitation Centers Behavioral Health Services, Inc. B.R.I.D.G.E.Inc. Career Partners Clare Foundation Chrysilis Covenant House Cri Help Delancy Street First Day Foothill One-Stop Career Center Gateways Hospital and Mental Health  Clinic Goodwill Industries Homeboy Industries Homeless Health Care Los Angeles (HHCLA) House of Uhuru Lamp Community LA Works Long Beach Rescue Mission Los Angeles  Family Housing Los Angeles Transition Center Los Angeles Mission Midnight Mission New Directions Oasis Women’s Recovering Community Paving the Way Foundation  Salvation Army Bell Shelter Salvation Army - Harbor City SELACO WorkSource Center Share Self-Help Shields for Families Special Service for Groups (SSG) HPOICS/RMO Tarzana  Treatment Center Volunteers of America Walden House Walter Having Home Weingart Center Department of Social Services Jail In-Reach Just In Reach Out of Custody Continuation  of Care and Programming Shields for Families Transitional Living, Steps Down and Preparation U.S. Armed Forces Veterans Volunteers of America Women’s Reintegration  Service Program Public Health Programs and Services HIV Counseling and Testing HIV Transitional Case Management HIV Heroes Program Educational Programs ealth First Condom Distribution Program Hepatitis C Education HIV Heroes Program Peer Education Training Program Pre-release Health Preparedness Risk / Harm Reduction  Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) Education Take Charge - Stay Safe Treatment Adherence Education Women Moving Ahead Community Based Alternatives to Custody Inmate  Welfare Fund Medical Services Adult Basic Education Adult Secondary Education High School Diploma English as a Second Language General Educational Development Education Plans Moral Recognition Therapy (MRT) Electronic Digital Learning System Future Enhancements Utilizing Technology Inmate E-mail Personal Audio  Device Kiosk Life Skills Programs Art Program Domestic Violence Prevention Drug Education Job Preparation Parent Education Personal Relations Resource Fair Returning  Hearts Teaching and Loving Kids (TALK) Multidisciplinary Treatment Modules K-9 Dog Program Maximizing Education Reaching Individual Transformation (MERIT) Striving  for Transformation through Education and Personal Success (MERIT-STEPS) Women Investing in Success through Education (MERIT-WISE) Social Mentoring Academic and  Rehabilitative Training (SMART) Stop Hate and Respect Everyone (SHARE) IMPACT Drug and Alcohol Treatment Center Getting out By Going I (GOGI) Incarcerated {Parenting  Program (IPP) Gender Responsive Rehabilitation (GRR) Autobody Repair Combination Welder Commercial Floor Layer Commercial Painting Commercial Sewing Computer Operations  Culinary Arts and Hospitality Custodial Building Maintenance Masonry and Commercial Construction Office Occupations Telecommunications - Directory Assistance  Operator Jail Enterprises Training Programs Animal Pet Grooming/Animal Caretaker Bicycle Repair Commercial Embroidery Commercial Nursery Operations /Landscaping    and Groundskeeping Graphic Arts/Sign Fabrication LASD and Non-LASD Station Jail’s Inmate Meal Program Printing Occupations Plastic Bag Manufacturing Occupations  School Lunch Program Woodworking Religious and Volunteer Services Unit 12-Step Programs A Purpose Driven Life Family Outreach Program Friends Outside Funeral Hospital Visits God in Our Mist Inmate Marriages Multi-Denominational Services Orientations Security Clearances Spiritual Growth Community Transition Unit Community  Partnerships Community Partners Acton Recovery Center Amity Foundation Antelope Valley Rehabilitation Centers Behavioral Health Services, Inc. B.R.I.D.G.E.S. , Inc.   Career Partners Clare Foundation Chrysilis Covenant House Cri Help Delancy Street First Day Foothill One-Stop Career Center Gateways Hospital and Mental Health  Clinic Goodwill Industries Homeboy Industries Homeless Health Care Los Angeles (HHCLA) House of Uhuru Lamp Community LA Works Long Beach Rescue Mission Los Angeles  Family Housing Los Angeles Transition Center Los Angeles Mission Midnight Mission New Directions Oasis Women’s Recovering Community Paving the Way Foundation  Salvation Army Bell Shelter Salvation Army - Harbor City SELACO WorkSource Center Share Self-Help Shields for Families Special Service for Groups (SSG) HPOICS/RMO Tarzana  Treatment Center Volunteers of America Walden House Walter Having Home Weingart Center Department of Social Services Jail In-Reach Just In Reach Out of Custody Continuation  of Care and Programming Shields for Families Transitional Living, Steps Down and Preparation U.S. Armed Forces Veterans Volunteers of America Women’s Reintegration  Service Program Public Health Programs and Services HIV Counseling and Testing HIV Transitional Case Management HIV Heroes Program Educational Programs ealth First Condom Distribution Program Hepatitis C Education HIV Heroes Program Peer Education Training Program Pre-release Health Preparedness Risk / Harm Reduction  Sexually Transmitted Infection (STI) Education Take Charge - Stay Safe Treatment Adherence Education Women Moving Ahead Community Based Alternatives to Custody Inmate  Welfare Fund Medical Services Adult Basic Education Adult Secondary Education High School Diploma English as a Second Language General Educational Development Education Plans Moral Recognition Therapy (MRT) Electronic Digital Learning System Future Enhancements Utilizing Technology Inmate E-mail

Custody Division • Education Based Incarceration Bureau

www.lasd.org  ~  www. EBI.LASD.org @EBILASD www.facebook.com/EBILASD

os Angeles County Sheriff’s Department

EDUCATION BASED INCARCERATION

CREATING A LIFE WORTH LIVING

 

A Message from the Sheriff

“Creating a Life Worth Living”

As the Sheriff of Los Angeles County, I am charged with running the nation’s largest jail system in a fair and impartial way. We know, from the documented high rates of recidivism across the nation, that traditional incarceration with punishment at its core simply does not work. In Los Angeles County we have developed a philosophy within the jails called Education Based Incarceration. This system works well within the boundaries of our Department Mission Statement and Core Values, by providing dignity in the jails.

 

Creating a system that reduces the risk and needs of its offenders through education and rehabilitation has shown significant success. It can be seen in reduced rates of recidivism, increased employability, and family reunification. In a very real sense, these are reinvestments in the communities within Los Angeles County.

 

People agree that education is a better option than incarceration. Unfortunately, some people make choices in their lives that land them in jail. The values needed to succeed in jail are often in direct conflict with societal norms. Education Based Incarceration creates a safe and empowering environment, conducive to learning and self-retrospection. It allows offenders to reprioritize their lives and opt for success!

 

It is a great honor to present this publication of the Education Based Incarceration Bureau, Custody Division of the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department.

Sincerely,

 

Leroy D. Baca

Sheriff

 

 

Core Values

As a leader in the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department, I commit myself to honorably perform my duties with respect for the dignity of all people, integrity to do right and fight wrongs, wisdom to apply common sense and fairness in all I do, and courage to stand against racism, sexism, anti-Semitism, homophobia and bigotry in all its forms.

 

Our Mission

Lead the fight to prevent crime and injustice. Enforce the law fairly and defend the rights of all, including the incarcerated. Partner with the people we serve to secure and promote safety in our communities  

 

Our Creed

My goals are simple. I will always be painfully honest, work as hard as I can, learn as much as I can and hopefully make a difference in people’s lives.

Deputy David W. March

End of Watch (Killed in the Line of Duty) April 29, 2002

 

 

EDUCATION BASED INCARCERATION

DOING WHAT WORKS FOR OUR COMMUNITIES

INTRODUCTION

This booklet describes the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department’s dynamic and growing family of educational programs for our inmate students. In fact, correctional education in the United States has been in existence for well over a century, usually taking the form of traditional reading, writing and mathematics, as well as job training. Several decades ago, correctional authorities and public policy-makers decided that, in reducing recidivism—repeat offending—“nothing works.” That position led to the replacement of inmate education with longer sentences in jail or prison, and has not worked. Today, the United States jails or imprisons more individuals per 100,000 of population than any other country in the world. Even today, only about 14 percent of jail inmates nationwide have access to any education or training while incarcerated.

Extensive research worldwide has led us to the conclusion that the best methods of leading inmates to the gates of success fall into two main, interconnected groups of efforts:

1. A dynamic, versatile, “wrap around” educational program that addresses each inmate student’s individual needs; and

2. A strong and reliable community re-entry network that reinforces the effects of education while it supports the returning offender’s efforts in finding employment, continuing therapy where indicated, and adjusting to a new, success-oriented life.

You will notice in reading this booklet that the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department (LASD) strives to design and adapt Education Based Incarceration (EBI) curriculum to make the most of a short stay, which currently averages 54 days. Prisons, by contrast, can plan their resources for students who will remain incarcerated anywhere from two years to life. This means that EBI programs in Los Angeles County must be able to offer quality short-term courses that apply the best scientifically proven remedial effect. We hope that you will notice the “short-stay” realities in our continuing research and development of highly flexible classroom content.

We also wish to emphasize the value of community participation at all phases of inmate learning, especially the growing ranks of community volunteers who teach/facilitate EBI courses. Their wonderful gift of their time and experience is strengthening the students and the community. The scope and variety of EBI educational programs is increasing almost daily. This partnership is creating a strong bond between LASD and tomorrow’s community leaders. We hope that this booklet gives you food for thought. Please contact us with your ideas, suggestions, and comments.

Thank you for joining us.

 

EDUCATION BASED INCARCERATION

A Message from the Captain

As the first captain of the newly-created Education Based Incarceration Bureau (EBI) I have been given the distinct

honor of overseeing this latest edition of our publication, “Creating a Life Worth Living.” Since its inception in

May of last year, the EBI Bureau has experienced an exciting period of growth and expansion throughout Custody

Division. We have been blessed with innovative, hardworking, self-motivated personnel, all of whom share the Sheriff’s vision of creating an educational environment for the inmates in all of our facilities. Our partners in this endeavor,  be it the Community Based Organizations, Faith Based Organizations, contracted education/ life skills professionals, Community College interns, Charter Schools, community volunteers and others, have all given us tremendous momentum as we move forward toward an exciting future. Given the outstanding opportunities that have been provided to us by our Sheriff and senior management staff, it is hard to remember that things were not always as forward thinking as they are today.

I remember my first assignment when I graduated from the Sheriff’s Academy back in May of 1980.

“Hands in your pockets, Right shoulder on the wall, No Talking.” These few words were the sum and substance of our direction regarding our interactions with the inmates back then. In those days, the inmates wore blue jeans and light blue shirts. At Men’s Central Jail (MCJ), they were all required to be dressed (with shirts tucked in), and filed out of their cells three times a day for meals that were served in the “chow halls.” In my experience at MCJ, programs were virtually non-existent. There were a few programs up at the Pitchess Detention Center, including a hog farm and dairy. How many of us

recall the days when our milk came from the Sheriff’s Dairy, packaged in the blue and white cartons?

Fast-forward to today, when we have extensive programming in all seven of our operating jails. We now have a lineup of educational programs, including GED and high school, which are presented by outside Charter Schools like John Muir, Five Keys, and Centinela. Our vocational programs are flourishing under the guidance of outside contracted vendors, as well as our own skilled professionals who teach everything from landscaping to culinary, sewing, pet grooming, welding, bike repair, masonry, commercial painting, sign shop, embroidery, computer skills, and a host of other programs.

Our life skills programs, most notably represented by our MERIT program, offer a wide variety of personal growth programs such as Alcoholics Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous, parenting, spiritual growth, and many others. We even have structured yoga programs and a hypnotherapist. To paraphrase a contemporary poet, the times they are indeed a’ changing.


 

 

SIX PRINCIPLES OF EBI

I.

Assess and evaluate both educational and trade skills of inmates.

II.

Develop a system of educating Los Angeles County jail inmates who inevitably will serve time in the California state prison system that begins and ends with a period of time in Los Angeles County jail facilities.

III.

The development and implementation of an automated case management information system.

IV.

Strengthen and systematize the partnership with the California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation (CDCR).

V.

Develop a comprehensive curriculum that activates a wide variety of learning programs that are both traditional and non-traditional.

VI.

Transform, through science and training, the LASD Custody Operations Division, as well as the State of California’s cultural thinking to approve, support, and participate in the principles and practice of Education Based Incarceration.

While we have experienced tremendous growth and success in our first year of operation, I have no doubt that we will continue to grow and learn as we expand even further into larger portions of our jails. Another important aspect of EBI is the concept of “wrap around” service that follows inmates as they are released from our custody. For those who are returning to their communities, it is our intention to follow them for a period of time and render assistance regarding housing, education, drug treatment, and employment. These efforts will be spearheaded by our Community Transition Unit (CTU), which will be housed in the soon-to-be-built Community Re-entry and Resource Center (CRRC), which will be located adjacent to our existing Inmate Reception Center (IRC). Completion of the project is expected by the end of 2013.

As noted later in this publication, the EBI Bureau has already had an impact on the safety of our jails; for inmates and our personnel as well. We also look forward to a time in the near future when we can begin to accurately track recidivism rates of inmates who participate in our programs. These are exciting times. I am extremely proud of everyone who is involved in this tremendous effort. Please feel free to join us as we move forward into the future.

 

Sincerely,

Michael Bornman

Captain

 


 

 

TABLE OF CONTENTS
PART ONE: GOING IN

GETTING ENROLLED IN EBI:........................................................................................................ 10

Los Angeles County Jail Population................................................................................................................ 11

Jail Facilities..................................................................................................................................................... 11

Inmate Welfare Commission........................................................................................................................... 13

Inmate Reception Center................................................................................................................................ 14

PART TWO: TIME IN

THE TRANSFORMATION:................................................................................................................. 16

The Learning Environment............................................................................................................................. 17

Inmate Programs Unit...................................................................................................................................... 19

Academic Programs......................................................................................................................................... 20

Vocational (Career Technical) Programs........................................................................................................ 21

Jail Enterprises Unit......................................................................................................................................... 23

Behavioral Modification Courses..................................................................................................................... 25

EBI Facilitators’ Manual.................................................................................................................................. 30

Multidisciplinary and Hybrid Programs........................................................................................................... 31

1. Maximizing Education Reaching Individual Transformation (MERIT)................................................ 31

a. MERIT................................................................................................................................................ 32

b. MERIT-MCJ: The “STEPS” Program................................................................................................. 33

c. MERIT-CRDF: “MERIT-Wise”........................................................................................................... 33

2. Hollywood Impact................................................................................................................................... 36

3. Social Mentoring Academic and Rehabilitative Training (SMART)................................................... 36

3. Stop Hate and Respect Everyone (SHARE Tolerance)........................................................................ 37

4. Gender Responsive Rehabilitation (GRR) ........................................................................................... 38

5. Getting Out by Going In (GOGI)......................................................................................................... 39

6. Incarcerated Parenting Program (IPP)................................................................................................... 39

7. IMPACT Drug and Alcohol Treatment Center..................................................................................... 39

Spiritual Growth Programs.............................................................................................................................. 40

1. Malachi Men........................................................................................................................................... 40

2. Returning Hearts..................................................................................................................................... 40

3. The Urban Ministry Institute (TUMI).................................................................................................. 40

4. School of Ministries................................................................................................................................ 41

5. Drug and Alcohol Abuse Courses.......................................................................................................... 41

6. Family Outreach Program....................................................................................................................... 41

7. Friends Outside....................................................................................................................................... 41

8. Funeral/Hospital Visits............................................................................................................................ 41

Table of Contents

PART THREE: GOING OUT

A NEW BEGINNING:............................................................................................................................. 42

Community Transition Unit............................................................................................................................ 43

Community Partnerships................................................................................................................................. 43

Community Reentry and Resource Center (CRRC)...................................................................................... 44

ON THE HORIZON......................................................................................................................... 46

RISK FACTORS................................................................................................................................... 47

A FEW WORDS ABOUT RECIDIVISM AND SAFER JAILS....................... 48

REFERENCES........................................................................................................................................ 52

RECOGNITIONS................................................................................................................................ 54

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS........................................................................................................... 56

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

GETTING ENROLLED IN EBI

Part One: Going In

LOS ANGELES COUNTY JAIL POPULATION

The Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department manages the largest jail population in the United States. At the time of this publication, nearly 19,000 inmates were housed in Los Angeles County jails. The average nightly total of inmates is rising somewhat due to a substantial number of non-serious, non-sex related, non-violent (N3) offenders being returned from state prisons to local jails to serve the remainder of their terms.

Also, several thousand offenders, at any given time, are serving their sentences outside jails, such as in Community-Based Alternatives to Custody (CBAC) programs, including work release and electronic monitoring. As noted, the Average Length of Stay (ALOS) for a non-N3 inmate in the Los Angeles County jail system is approximately 54 days, and the average stay for an N-3 inmate is 1.5 years.

 

JAIL FACILITIES

The Los Angeles County Jail system is comprised of the following geographically separate housing facilities:

 

Century Regional Detention Facility (CRDF)

An all-female unit, it has the capacity to house 2,400 inmates.

 

Men’s Central Jail (MCJ)

A maximum security facility has the capacity to house up to 5,000 inmates, together with medical housing and provisions for mentally ill and disabled inmates.

 

Mira Loma Detention Center (MLDC)

Services at this location are currently curtailed. The facility’s future use is under consideration.

 

Twin Towers Correctional Facility (TTCF)

An eight-story facility in downtown Los Angeles, these two towers can house up to 4,700 inmates. It is connected to the Inmate Reception Center (IRC), although the two locations are run as separate units. TTCF houses maximum security inmates and many mental health inmates. The LASD Medical Services Bureau and the Los Angeles County Department of Mental Health provide inpatient housing for inmates with various levels of acute medical and mental health needs.

 

Pitchess Detention Center (PDC)

An aggregate of four separate jails (North County Correctional Facility, East Facility, North Facility, and South Facility) in the northwestern part of Los Angeles County, PDC is a stateof- the-art group of facilities featuring some of the most progressive educational programs in the United States (more details are give below about the specific “flagship” programs taking place there)

 

INMATE WELFARE COMMISSION

Established in 1951, the Inmate Welfare Commission consists of nine persons, appointed by the Sheriff, to provide humanitarian and educational support to inmates. The Commission reviews policies and practices, and makes recommendations to the Sheriff regarding funding for education, recreation, vocational training, counseling and community transition. The Commission receives and stewards funds for the Inmate Welfare Fund. Those funds are derived from revenue sharing contracts such as inmate telephones, commissary and vending machines known as kiosks. A large portion of the EBI Bureau’s educational programs are paid for by the inmates through their purchases of phone calls, snacks, soft drinks, and toiletries, rather than by the taxpayers of Los Angeles County.

Jay R. Stroh

CHAIRMAN


 

Raymond Cheng

Andy Lujan

Dr. Garbis

Der-Yeghiayan

Dr. Maria Simms

Robert L. Jones

Keith R. Ellis

John A. Franklin

Christopher C. Leu


 

 

 

 

INMATE RECEPTION CENTER

The Inmate Reception Center (IRC) receives approximately 440 new bookings each day, with a total of about 160,000 each year. Among the many functions of IRC is that of accounting for all bookings and releases of inmates within the entire jail system, in addition to safekeeping the inmates’ property and money. IRC receives all inmates, who then undergo a detailed classification process and a medical screening process. The inmate classification process is a series of questionnaires designed to provide comprehensive background information, which is then applied as a guideline in determining security levels (low, medium or high) and inmate assignments to housing areas in a fair and consistent manner. This is based on a combination of factors, including security level, medical and mental health-related issues, and program services including educational and vocational placement. During the initial intake process arrestees are asked whether they would be interested in entering an educational program during the time they are incarcerated—no matter how short or how long. If their answer is “yes,” they are given a second assessment interview that will give an indication of which particular studies and courses each individual inmate should consider taking in order to improve all aspects of their chances to succeed in life, as well as to find out which subjects and career training classes they would like to pursue.

 

“ The Case Manager creates a computer file to chart the student’s progress, just as in any community college or university.”

 

Then a “Master Plan” is made for each student with his or her own active participation. Also, all new inmate students who enter the MERIT program, discussed in Part Two of this book, are immediately assigned a Case Manager who will serve as their guide and advisor from entry to release. The Case Manager is a representative of the Education Based Incarceration Bureau’s Community Transition Unit (CTU), whom the inmate meets for the first time at this point. The CTU and its service programs for re-entering inmates are discussed in Part Three of this booklet. The Case Manager creates a computer file to chart the student’s progress, just as in any community college or university. All completion certificates or other awards go into the student’s record. After release, these achievements can be forwarded to schools, authorities or prospective employers, on request of the student.

The following sections of this booklet will further inform the reader about the EBI total learning environment, and about the swift expansion of EBI’s student body and its academic offerings.

 

THE LEARNING ENVIRONMENT

Any successful program of inmate education requires the creation of an environment that surrounds the students with the inspiration and excitement of learning. These are several environmental incentives that EBI makes available to inmates who are potential students:

• Video: A library of over a thousand Discovery Education Network videos, together with Animal Planet, History, and other educational channels. These are presently being broadcast at Century Regional Detention Center (CRDF), and at Twin Towers Correctional Facility (TTCF), and will soon be available for inmates in other facilities as well.

• Music: EBI is expanding the network of good music (favorites, cool jazz, light classics, and other specialties) to all facilities for sleeping or for restful meditation.

• Libraries: Described in more detail below, thousands of books covering all topics are now available to inmates in libraries, and are delivered on “rolling libraries” to those inmates who are disabled or who otherwise do not have access.

 

THE TRANSFORMATION

“Education is not the filling of a bucket: education is the lighting of a flame.”

Attributed to Aristotle

 

• Self-study workbooks: EBI contracted with a publisher to produce nearly a thousand selfstudy workbooks. They are designed with the help of professors of education at universities in Los Angeles County, and include 28 different titles and subjects. Seven hundred of them have already been distributed among the seven jail facilities. The books become the property of the inmates, and they are encouraged to trade them to make as many titles as possible available to all. Also, the readers are asked to fill out a questionnaire specially designed to help EBI assess and evaluate the impact the books produce. This program has met with great enthusiasm among the inmate students, and their comments and suggestions are a valuable aid in giving the program greater focus and relevancy. The self-study workbooks have helped reduce disturbances among inmates, and have also been a favorite teacher/facilitator aid. Their multifaceted uses are an essential component of the wrap-around educational environment.

 

• Cognitive behavioral studies: These are brought to the students’ living areas and presented by deputies, custody assistants, professional teachers and community volunteers on a daily basis.

 

• Wherever possible, living quarters are arranged so that students benefitting from same or similar courses of instruction are housed together to allow them to study and discuss the assignments as a group. This inspires more concentrated learning and encourages active participation. A large number of inmates who showed no interest in education when they entered the jail facilities are now enrolled in classes, in large part due to the learning environment they experience, which is reinforced by a growing, positive peer influence.

 

INMATE PROGRAMS UNIT

The Inmate Programs Unit is tasked with the primary mission of coordinating all the educational, vocation, and behavioral therapy programs for inmate students. The IPU collaborates with a number of educational and other agencies to ensure that a wide variety of high-quality courses and resources are made available to all students.

A large and increasing body of knowledge, nationally and internationally, points to these main areas of concern for inmates leaving jail:

 

• General Educational Development:

For inmate students who have not yet achieved a high school diploma, this program offers an alternative diploma in the form of a state-approved equivalency series in the areas of language arts (reading, writing, and comprehension skills), mathematics, science, and social studies.

• Formal education deficits;

• Employability;

• Drugs and alcohol;

• Life skill deficits;

• Behavioral patterns and critical thinking skills;

• Mental health challenges.

Research also clearly indicates that a holistic, “wrap around” program of intensive, interactive courses is the best and most lasting response to those challenges.

For those reasons, and in line with modern research and development, the three main categories of inmate learning programs are: academic courses, vocational education, and behavior modification programs.

 

ACADEMIC PROGRAMS

The Sheriff’s Department, through the Education Based Incarceration Bureau, contracts with approved adult educational schools to provide courses at all jail facilities. The curriculum is based on California state standards, and is kept up to date with current requirements. It includes:

• Adult Basic Education: This series of courses is offered to students preparing for the formal GED preparation course. It features a systematic “building block” approach to development of improved reading, writing, and math skills.

 

VOCATIONAL (CAREER TECHNICAL) PROGRAMS

The Sheriff’s Department offers a wide variety of industrial training courses designed to increase the likelihood of employment in specific vocations after release. Here are a few examples of the current and growing list of vocational training courses available:

 

• Art Education: This program develops general art skills, techniques, and aesthetic expression related to artistic and professional practice in the media.

• Automobile Body Repair and Detailing: This is comprehensive course that features repairs, maintenance, welding, power tools, metal techniques, spray painting, refinishing and detailing.

• Building Maintenance: Prepares students for careers in the rapidly growing field of custodial maintenance, basic repairs, floor care, and insect and rodent control.

• Cement and Concrete Block Masonry:Teaches a wide variety of modern masonry techniques, including barbecue patios, block wall buildings and fire pits.

• Commercial Painting: Includes instruction in brushes, rollers, spray equipment, abrasive blasting, and rigging/scaffolding.

• Residential Construction: A comprehensive course from foundation to roofing and everything in between.

• Commercial Welding: Teaches the full spectrum of various types of commercial welding.

• Computer Operations: Covers the basics of Microsoft Office 2010 suite operations, Word, PowerPoint, Access, and Excel.

• Culinary Arts: Active training in food services, baking, cooking and the full spectrum of food preparation career preparation.

• Directory Assistance Operator: This is an entry-level training course for state of the art telecommunications, taught by a contracted education agency. Inmate students provide information services on three shifts, 24 hours a day, seven days a week.

• Landscaping: This growing industry offers career potential on a number of levels, and the courses train students in lawn care, irrigation, plant care, and basic landscape design.

 

JAIL ENTERPRISES UNIT

The Jail Enterprises Unit (JEU) oversees vocational shops spread over several separate jail facilities. It features workforce training with a practical aspect: Credentialed instructors train the students while the products they manufacture are sold to Los Angeles County departments and employees, thus generating revenue for the Inmate Welfare Commission to support the entire scope of inmate programs. These courses include:

 

• Print Shop: The 19,000 square feet commercial-based print shop is located at Pitchess Detention Center. Students are taught basic and advanced printing application using state-of-the-art printing equipment. The print shop produces products such as forms, flyers, brochures, invitations, envelopes and magazines.

• Sign Shop: Here, students learn basic computer- aided fabrication and are introduced to graphic arts design. In addition to signs, they also produce engraved awards such as plaques, trophies and medallions.

• Sew Shop: This shop introduces students to the power-sewing industry. They produce all the inmate clothing, linen, property bags and mattresses.

• Wood Shop: The wood shop provides both classroom instruction and hands-on training in numerous types of woodworking, such as Millwork, Finish Carpentry and Cabinet making. Students also repair furniture and craft large outdoor signs for Sheriff’s Department facilities.

• Wheelchair Repair Shop: Students repair wheelchairs for the Medical Services Bureau, while the backs and seats are sewn at the Sew Shop.  JEU has also entered the arena of sustainable industries, such as farming and horticulture, community and urban gardening, and beekeeping. The Jail Enterprises Unit sponsors cutting edge research and development to prepare students for the careers and the environmentally friendly technologies of tomorrow.

• Plastic Bag Manufacturing: This program supplies much of the Department’s requirement for lunch bags and large trash bags. Students learn industrial machine operations, packaging and small-scale warehousing.

• Bike Shop: The bicycle repair shop receives donated bikes from commercial bicycle shops throughout the county, as well as abandoned property. Students repair and refurbish them from start to finish, providing practical instruction in mechanics, repair and maintenance.

• Pet Grooming: Teaching skills used in the pet-service industry, this training prepares students for jobs in such businesses as kennels, animal shelters, pet shops and pet salons.

• Commercial Embroidery Shop: Inmates learn embroidery basics, machine maintenance, and technical applications. The students use cuttingedge, computerized embroidering machines.

• Commercial Landscaping, Plant Nursery, Landscaping, and Groundskeeping: This program prepares inmate students for careers in plant farm management, including orchards, vineyards, and tree and shrub nurseries. The Department operates a large nursery and provides training in nursery operations, equipment maintenance, horticultural skills, soil preparation, plant propagation, and sprinkler installation and maintenance.

 

BEHAVIORAL MODIFICATION COURSES

These courses of instruction are generally referred to as Cognitive Behavioral Therapy. Studies worldwide have consistently shown them to be very effective in reducing recidivism. EBI offers a wide variety of such critical thinking and perception courses, generally of 6-8 weeks in length. They are taught using a modern interactive method known as “facilitation.” EBI facilitators include specially trained sheriff’s deputies and custody assistants in each of the jail units countywide.

Also, EBI has recruited and trained over 150 community volunteers, including members of the Sheriff’s Interfaith Clergy Council, to act as teacher/facilitators for the courses. The curriculum includes a broad selection of those Cognitive Behavioral and Life Skills subjects that are proven to be most effective in producing transformation among inmate students. The volunteers include many of the County’s most experienced and dedicated community leaders, and represent a broad cross-section of community organizations. Also, guest instructors from universities nationwide are now teaching this category of courses, and are introducing useful innovations that are being incorporated into the EBI curriculum.

EBI also sponsors interns from colleges, universities and graduate schools across the USA, training them in EBI practices and procedures while providing a valuable platform for future research and development.

 

Here are some examples of the growing selection of cognitive behavioral courses:

• Changing How We Think: Students learn how our internal thoughts affect our feelings, not external things like people or events. By changing how we think, we can change how we feel and behave.

• Domestic Violence: Helps students understand what constitutes an abusive relationship and how to develop the skills necessary to resolve conflicts constructively.

• How to Get a Job: Teaches students the basics of conducting a job search, preparing a resume, and participating in a job interview.

• Education is a Way of Life: Offers an overview of how to obtain a basic GED and enroll in college courses, as well as how to access resources available to students, including local libraries and other services in their communities.

• Substance Abuse Education: This course covers the physiology and psychology of substance abuse, including the effects of drugs and alcohol on the mind and body, and strategies for quitting.

• Leadership Training: Offers the basics of individual and group leadership, including the importance of values, ethics, and attitudes.

• Interpersonal Communication: Discusses the interpersonal communication process, including verbal and non-verbal language, conflict management, and causes of miscommunication.

• Conflict Resolution: This course focuses on how to manage and resolve interpersonal conflicts, including managing our responses, achieving rapport, taking perspective, and managing emotions.

• Anger Management: Helps students understand how to recognize and control emotions, resolve conflicts, and improve interpersonal relationships.

• Moral Reconation Training (MRT): This is a systematic, cognitive behavioral, step by step treatment strategy designed to enhance self-image, promote growth of a positive productive identity and facilitate the development of higher stages of moral reasoning. All the foregoing courses involve the conscious process of decision-making and purposeful behavior.

• Seven Habits of Highly Effective People:

Covers the basics of Dr. Steven Covey’s popular course, including being proactive, putting first things first, seeking first to understand, and synergy.

• Parenting: Discusses the techniques and skills of effective parenting, including behavioral modification techniques.

 

EBI FACILITATOR’S MANUAL

The Facilitator’s Manual, developed by EBI staff, consists of lesson plans covering 45 separate learning domains, focusing on critical life skills needed to improve the quality of life for inmate students. Both Sheriff’s Department personnel and community volunteers are given the opportunity to meet in small groups with the students and facilitate these and other learning domains. These learning units are especially well-suited to the jail environment, i.e., “making the most of a short stay.”

One beneficial outcome is the strengthened relationship between the inmate and LASD staff, creating a calmer day to day environment. Also, studies on correctional education all indicate that the most effective educational courses are those which focus on values, attitudes and thinking. These programs form an essential part of any modern policy for reducing recidivism.

The lessons are designed to be student-centered with ample opportunity for questions, dialogue and examples—rather than delivered in a more traditional lecture-based format. The active participation of community volunteers is extremely valuable in creating a positive attitude among the students toward continuous self-improvement.

The Manual has been translated into Spanish and is proving extremely popular with Spanish-speaking facilitators and students.

 

MULTIDISCIPLINARY AND HYBRID PROGRAMS

The programs described below are also known as comprehensive, three-dimensional, or “wrap-around” educational and therapeutic courses. Just as the needs of inmates leaving jails are extremely complex, EBI designs its solutions, to the greatest extent possible, to respond to those needs on an individual basis. EBI therefore has developed a full spectrum of academic, vocational, cognitive behavioral, and other comprehensive techniques, and is rapidly expanding both the curriculum and the numbers of inmate students participating in these programs.

 

1. MAXIMIZING EDUCATION REACHING INDIVIDUAL TRANSFORMATION (MERIT)

MERIT is one of the flagship programs in EBI, and is one of the most successful. It is based on a close and active partnership between the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department, community based organizations and faith based organizations. The strength of the MERIT series lies in its ability to bring each participant to the point that they recognize the necessity of a personal commitment to reaching their goals, accepting responsibility for their actions, and being accountable for their life choices. They then learn how to make those choices in a rational manner, and to employ their positive attributes toward building a successful family, career, and future.

MERIT’S curriculum provides an avenue for change through personal accountability, and increases the student’s skills at utilizing options and resources for success. Students are enrolled in the program through several sources:

• General population referrals from inmate dorms and inmate request forms

• The IMPACT therapeutic program for drug counseling, especially those sentenced by the drug courts with Los Angeles County, and

• Court order of the sentencing Superior Court judge

• Request from family members and legal counsel

 

One of the innovations of this interdisciplinary program is its Progression feature.

1. Potential students are recruited out of the General Population dorms of all jail facilities by Merit Masters students. Those accepted into MERIT Beginnings then take an initial thirty-day course, which is taught by MERIT Masters. The Beginnings course acts as a feeder for the succeeding levels and courses. Students successfully completing Beginnings then proceed to the;

2. Life Skills course, a twelve-week series emphasizing career, commitment and relationships. When students graduate from the Life Skills courses, they become eligible to apply for the;

3. MERIT Masters Program. Candidates are then selected by oral exams. Those not selected for the MERIT Masters Program can opt to stay in a MERIT dorm and continue development of their Exit Plan.

4. Graduates of the MERIT (MERIT Masters ) Program can then teach students in Beginnings, or return to General Population dorms to teach and/or recruit new entry-level students, while serving the remainder of their sentences.

5. The final stage of the Progression is MERIT Continuum, a post-release group that meets once a week with various community services and faith-based organizations that provide a safety net to these former MERIT students. The Continuum locations are South Los Angeles, Pasadena and Santa Clarita.

 

MERIT had its beginnings at Pitchess Detention Center, South Facility, and now offers similar programs at all other jail facilities.

a. MERIT

The Pitchess Detention Center, South Facility, offers the full MERIT Progression. Participants are challenged to evaluate past abusive behaviors, set goals for recovery, show their motivation to change their behavior, and accept responsibility for future actions. This holistic program is framed in a community setting, in which students are housed together, eat together, discuss the subject materials and attend classes together.

EBI’s Research and Development Unit is completing a plan to convert the entire South Facility at the Pitchess Detention Center into an “all education” jail of MERIT dorms and classrooms. Educational programs will then be offered to all 1,400 student inmates in the facility.

b. MERIT- MCJ: The “STEPS” Program

The MERIT- STEPS program at Men’s Central Jail aims to create a positive change in incarcerated men.

This too is a holistic program, and combines traditional classes with cognitive behavioral, self-improvement modules. Students in this program are housed in the same dorm and agree to help each other and treat one another as equals, as well as to participate in one of several committees: Executive, New Member Relations, Tutoring, Marketing/Promotions, and Volunteer.

In a unique aspect of the program, students develop a working “Exit Plan.” They add continuously to the plan as they identify the skills necessary to successfully transition from incarceration to society. Prior to participating, students are assessed to determine their levels of social functioning. They also work with a school counselor for appropriate placement and class enrollment.

 

c. MERIT- CRDF: The “MERIT-Wise” Program

The MERIT-WISE program was developed specifically to assist female inmates at Century Regional Detention Facility (CRDF). Female students who commit to making changes in their behavior have the privilege of living in the MERIT honor dorm, where they attend a variety of academic, life skills, and behavior modification classes. Upon selection into the program, students are required to set definite goals for employment, family reunification, and rehabilitation. Students are honored for their achievements on a quarterly basis with certificate ceremonies.

 

The MERIT Progression

GENERAL POPULATION DORMS          MERIT BEGINNINGS 6 WEEKS             MERIT LIFE SKILLS 12 WEEKS

General population students will be taught EBI classes from master students. MERIT Beginnings program is designed as a feeder program for the MERIT Life Skills class. Some MERIT grads will stay in the program after graduation for leadership purposes. Some students will become section leaders, clerks, leadership for the class. Masters students will recruit from the general population dorms. MERIT staff will also enroll from inmate request forms. Nine times out of ten, inmates will stay in the program once they give the program a chance.

MERIT MASTERS MERIT CONTINUUM

Masters students will teach, mentor, council and develop a business plan. Master teachers will visit Sylmar Juvenile Hall and teach EBI Life Skills classes. Any student from any level of the MERIT program is welcome to attend the post released Continuum. The Continuum is once a week. Community based and faith based organizations meet to provide a safety net to these former students.

MERIT GRADUATION DORM

Many MERIT grads will stay in the dorm and continue to work on their education. Masters students will be selected from this dorm by an oral interview.

 

2. HOLLYWOOD IMPACT

The goal of Hollywood Impact Studios is to bring new hope and a brighter future to those individuals who have been dealt a tough hand in life; to use the art of television and film making to change lives; and to provide a training ground where Hollywood professionals mentor these individuals in order to identify and develop their individual talent for a career in Hollywood, with the result of producing top network quality programming.

 

3. SOCIAL MENTORING ACADEMIC AND REHABILITATIVE TRAINING (SMART)

The SMART program is another of EBI’s unique flagship programs. Created thirteen years ago at Men’s Central Jail, SMART has been and remains a pioneer and an internationally recognized model in dealing with the multiple issues experienced by gay and transgender inmates within the jail system. SMART was originally designed to protect vulnerable gay and transgender men from assaults and victimization by other inmates in the jails. The program then grew, through the creative leadership of its originators and their staff, from a protective segregation instrument into a complete, multidisciplinary educational program.

Today, SMART occupies its own section of MCJ, including classrooms, libraries, study areas, offices for career and personal affairs counselors, and other services usually associated with community colleges or universities. The program now has a capacity of 280 students, and consistently operates near full capacity. As human rights for gay and transgender Americans have progressed in recent years, SMART has been gradually increasing its student body to include non-gay inmates who nonetheless suffer from similar risks of assault or violence when placed in the general population. The results of this integration are exceptionally positive.

One of the hallmarks of SMART is the wrap-around, intensive nature of the learning process. Students are in class daily, for a weekly total of 30 hours. The curriculum is varied and eclectic, and is constantly a work in progress. The program features a growing number of modern learning combinations, such as:

• Applied psychology as a survival tool;

• Yoga, Pilates, and learning meditation processes;

• Learning and memory improvement techniques;

• Basic math and its applications to logic and problem-solving;

• Combining art, music, and ethics;

• Hypnotherapy as a reinforcement tool in drug and alcohol addiction treatment.

SMART courses are taught by Deputies and Custody Assistants assigned to the unit, as well as by community volunteers and administrators of community-based services for released inmates. The program has attained widespread recognition, and attracts prominent teachers as volunteers from universities and research institutes throughout the United States.

Their active teaching, facilitation, and dialogue with SMART students not only inspires enthusiasm among the students, but also is a subject of nationwide coverage in academic and professional literature.

A recent example is an in-depth study of SMART published in March 2012, in The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology (Northwestern University School of Law), listed as reference No. 14 in the List of References at the end of this booklet. The EBI Bureau also considers SMART as a valuable research laboratory for more widespread application of hybrid and interdisciplinary techniques.

 

4. STOP HATE AND RESPECT EVERYONE (SHARE)

The SHARE Tolerance Program was introduced to the general public in late 2008, and has since gained the participation of thousands of middle school and high school students throughout Los Angeles County. The program’s focus on exposing the harms caused by hate crimes and teaching respect and tolerance for all has had an enormous positive impact wherever it has appeared. It was therefore a logical step to include a custody version of SHARE in the EBI curriculum. In early 2010, a special classroom was designed and built inside Men’s Central Jail for presentation of the SHARE Tolerance Program to inmate students.

The classroom essentially mirrors the travelling version of the program that has proven so successful. The same dramatic graphics that were displayed in the mobile learning trailer are installed on the walls of the jail classroom, providing a wrap-around learning environment. The program begins with the SHARE Tolerance video, which is a specially produced, vivid depiction of hate crimes throughout Los Angeles County. After the video, LASD personnel facilitate the follow up discussion with the participants. Not surprisingly, the inmate version of the program is on a much more adult level than the high school version.

Over the past four years, hundreds of SHARE Tolerance classes have been presented to inmate students in Men’s Central Jail. Feedback from students has been enthusiastic, and the program is highly acclaimed for its ability to foster greater insight, understanding, and self-reflection regarding the issues of hate and intolerance in our communities. Many students suggest that all inmates in the Los Angeles County jail system should participate in SHARE Tolerance prior to re-entry into their communities.

In light of the proven success of the program, a SHARE Tolerance classroom has been created at Century Regional Detention Facility (CRDF) to accommodate presentation of the program to our female inmate population. Further, the Education Based Incarceration Bureau has planned the expansion of the custody version to include all four facilities within the Pitchess Detention Facility complex as well as the Twin Towers Correctional Facility.

 

5. GENDER RESPONSIVE REHABILITATION (GRR)

GRR addresses the specific needs of women inmates, and is based on sound scientific research into trauma, abuse, poverty and other factors that lead women into addiction and criminal behavior. GRR is based on the fact that the pathway to crime among women is different from the male experience:

Gender does matter.

GRR is a therapeutic community that is organized and taught by a highly trained staff (HEALTHRIGHT 360) that traces the past events in the life of each student to determine the causes of her present status. The therapeutic plan is then developed to deal with the trauma and bring about an outcome of empowerment and reconnection.

 

6. GETTING OUT BY GOING IN (GOGI)

The GOGI program for male and female inmates is committed to nurturing the internal change that comes from positive education and self-empowerment. Classes take place at the Twin Towers and Central Jail facilities, and include life skills, disciplined thinking, anger management, ethics, dressing for success, spirituality, and drug awareness and avoidance. Many of the instructors are university graduate students. As a unique feature of GOGI, each student is assigned a coach who provides individual guidance that continues after release. Another innovation now at GOGI is a “train the trainer” course that grooms students to instruct fellow inmates in self-help techniques.

 

7. INCARCERATED PARENTING PROGRAM (IPP)

IPP facilitates visits by minor children to their incarcerated mothers. This service is especially crucial where there is tension or animosity between parents.

 

8. IMPACT DRUG TREATMENT PROGRAM

The inmates who are involved in the IMPACT Program are selected by designated Drug Courts within the Municipal and Superior courts of Los Angeles County. Inmates must have approval by an authorized Drug Court, the contact service providers (IMPACT Center) and the Sheriff’s Department, to participate in a twelve-step curriculum partially based upon the tenets of the Narcotics Anonymous program. When an inmate completes the program, the IMPACT staff makes a recommendation to the court for follow-up monitoring, which can last up to eighteen months. The monitoring may include drug testing, non-custodial supervision, employment authorization, and continued participation in the twelve-step program.

 

SPIRITUAL GROWTH PROGRAMS

Community faith-based organizations occupy an important place in the range of services offered to all persons in LASD custody countywide. For that reason, programs sponsored by religious organizations are mentioned here even though they are not administered by EBI. Instead, they are administered by the Religious and Volunteer Services (RVS) which coordinates all religious activity within the jails and ensures that inmates have access to ministers, spiritual advisors, and moral rehabilitation programs of their choice.

Just as Los Angeles County is home to persons of nearly every nationality, ethnicity and religious belief in the world, our inmates reflect the same diversity. The Jail Chaplaincy Program now includes 290 ordained or licensed chaplains and more than 1,800 religious or spiritual volunteers representing major faith groups as well as lesser-known sects and denominations. All chaplain visits and worship services, scripture teaching and moral rehabilitation programs are performed by volunteers and clergy staff at no cost to Los Angeles County.

Assisting the RVS is the Religious Advisory Council. This is a group of liaison chaplains, representing the Christian Catholic, Protestant, Eastern Orthodox, Armenian Orthodox, Christian Science, Latter Day Saints (Mormon), Anglican, Jehovah’s Witness and Episcopalian faiths, as well as Buddhist, Orthodox Jewish, Reform Jewish, Islamic and other faiths. Here are a few examples of their more prominent spiritual growth programs on offer to all inmates (except for the gender-specific programs):

 

• Malachi Men: Malachi Men is a 12-week Bible study course designed to train men how to be Godly men, husbands and fathers. It is operated by the Grace Baptist Church in Santa Clarita, California. Certificates of Completion are issued at a graduation ceremony at the end of each study series.

• Returning Hearts: Returning Hearts Celebration is a one-day event that unites children with their inmate fathers and grandfathers to begin the long road of breaking the cycles of crime and incarceration. Hundreds of volunteers set up a carnival with food, games, music and activities at the Pitchess Detention Center. Returning Hearts promotes hope, joy, and reconciliation.

• The Urban Ministry Institute (TUMI): TUMI is a seminary-style religious educational program designed to train pastors and church leaders among inmates who demonstrate spiritual leadership. It is a 16-module curriculum that takes about 30 to 36 months to complete.

• School of Ministries: This is a short-term seminary program for inmate students who wish to prepare for a career as a pastor or minister. It features Bible studies, research techniques, and public speaking, and is taught by five pastoral assistants. The curriculum comprises 120 classroom hours over a three-month period.

• Drug and Alcohol Abuse Courses:

These include several programs designed according to the Twelve-Step model, such as Celebrate Recovery, Alcoholics Anonymous, Narcotics Anonymous and others.

• Family Outreach Program: This program helps the families of inmates with spiritual and religious concerns and offers referrals to 12-Step Programs, places of worship, free legal services, spouse/child abuse programs, food banks, crisis interventions, parenting classes and financial services that are available in their communities.

• Friends Outside: Friends Outside provides confidential services to inmates, including those newly released, and their families. They offer support to inmates’ families and friends by providing information regarding procedures for depositing money, picking up inmate property, and inmate visiting, including transportation.

• Funeral/Hospital Visits: When an inmate learns of an immediate family member’s death or hospitalization, members of RVS can assist with visitation arrangements. Under specific conditions, an inmate may be escorted by deputy personnel to visit a family member in hospital, attend the viewing of a deceased relative, or attend their funeral services.

 

 

A NEW BEGINNING

Part Three: Going Out

COMMUNITY TRANSITION UNIT

The mission of the Community Transition Unit (CTU) is to provide guidance to inmate students scheduled for impending release who are in need of many essential services.

Scientific studies worldwide show clearly that the most vulnerable period of time for released inmates — the time space in which they are most likely to commit another crime — occurs during the seventy-two hour period immediately after release.

CTU works to reduce the numbers of released inmates who ultimately return to custody. For that purpose, CTU partners with a large number of correctional professionals and their organizations to refer departing inmate students to the specific services indicated by the student’s needs profile. The staff at CTU, most of whom are LASD Custody Assistants trained in case management, seek to ensure that released inmates have the necessary tools to reintegrate into the community and to progress beyond their past.

Inmates with 90 days or less left before release are actively case-managed to ensure optimum preparedness for a seamless transition to the community or to a community based organization.

 

COMMUNITY PARTNERSHIPS

The following organizations represent a cross-section of community efforts working in close partnership with CTU, offering assistance with employment services, substance-abuse counseling, domestic violence counseling, housing, transportation, life skills, and job readiness services:


 

• Acton Rehabilitation Center, Acton;

• Amity Foundation, Los Angeles;

• Antelope Valley Rehabilitation Centers, Castaic;

• Behavioral Health Services, Inc., Long Beach;

• Bridges, Inc., Pomona;

• Career Partners, Rosemead;

• Chrysalis, Los Angeles;

• CLARE Foundation, Santa Monica;

• Covenant House, Los Angeles;

• Cri Help, North Hollywood;

• Delancey Street, Los Angeles;

• First Day, Whittier;

• Foothill One-Stop Career Center, Pasadena;

• Gateways Hospital and Mental Health Clinic, Los Angeles;

• GOGI- Getting Out by Going In, Los Angeles;

• Goodwill Industries, Los Angeles;

• Homeboy Industries, Los Angeles;

• Homeless Health Care Los Angeles (HHCLA);

• House of Uhuru, Los Angeles;

• Lamp Community, Los Angeles;

• LA Works, Los Angeles, Irwindale;

• Long Beach Rescue Mission, Long Beach;

• Los Angeles Family Housing, North Hollywood;

• Los Angeles Transition Center (LATC), Los Angeles;

• Los Angeles Mission, Los Angeles;

• Midnight Mission, Los Angeles;

• New Directions, Los Angeles;

• Oasis Women’s Recovering Community, Sylmar;

• Paving the Way Foundation, Lancaster;

• Salvation Army Bell Shelter, Bell;

• Salvation Army – Harbor Light, Los Angeles;

• SELACO WorkSource Center, Los Angeles;

• Share Self-Help, Los Angeles;

• Shields for Families, Inc., Lynwood and Compton;

• Special Service for Groups (SSG) HOPICS/RMO, Los Angeles;

• Substance Abuse Foundation of Long Beach;

• Tarzana Treatment Centers, Tarzana;

• United States Veterans Initiative (U.S.VETS), Inglewood and Long Beach;

• Volunteers of America (VOA), Los Angeles;

• Walden House, Los Angeles;

• Walter Hoving Home, Pasadena;

• Weingart Center, Los Angeles.


 

CTU experience to date cooperating in the provision of those services has now resulted in the development of a new and innovative program.

 

COMMUNITY REENTRY AND RESOURCE CENTER (CRRC)

CRRC is a project for comprehensive, on-premises provision of essential services for inmates due for release. It combines all essential social services in one location, and is based on individual needs and recidivism risk evaluations.

This project, still in the developmental stage, has identified funding and has completed an architectural design. It will be located in a building unit attached to the Twin Towers Corrections Facility complex, and will combine a large number of service providers. Each of them will occupy its own branch office- Service Station, with inmate interview space and online immediate access to the required service. They will include:

• Department of Motor Vehicles (DMV): To issue State of California ID cards to inmates who have none. The cards are essential for opening bank accounts, renting living quarters, applying for Public Assistance or disability benefits (SSI), as well for accessing transitional housing or jobs;

• Department of Public Social Services (DPSS): To issue emergency food cards, bus tokens, cash vouchers, and other support;

• Emergency homeless accommodations: Through LAHSA, LAMP, LAFH, and other organizations;

• HUD, Section 8, and other public and transitional housing possibilities;

• Department of Health, and Department of Mental Health: Referrals to health care and mental health care in the returning inmate’s own community, including:

Medical appointment scheduling; Continuing addiction treatment; Job placement referrals;

Referrals to public libraries, local support groups, and other neighborhood resources.

 

ON THE HORIZON

EMERGING LEADERS ACADEMY: A PATH TO SUCCESS

The Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department and the Los Angeles Urban League have partnered to create an educational program for gang members and “at risk” persons. The Emerging Leaders Academy provides a path of opportunities empowering participants to take a new direction in life. The Academy teaches essential skills for employment and services as an alternative to criminal behavior and violence.

Participants engage in forums geared toward developing ethical belief systems, building self-reliance, identifying employment opportunities, and creating organized action plans for achievement. The Academy conducts personal assessments for academic advancement, vocational training, job placement, and delivers personal guidance and mentoring.

Participants in this program must be nominated by Probation Department staff, Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department members, community leaders, or the Los Angeles Urban League staff.

Development classes are held at local training centers located throughout Los Angeles County. The Academy programs will enable “at risk” persons to secure economic independence and become productive and involved members of the community. This intensive and progressive training leads to leadership roles as the Academy members reintegrate into their communities.

 

RISK FACTORS

National and international research and program development efforts point clearly to the following main risk factors in predicting the probability of an inmate reoffending:

• Educational deficits;

• Lack of vocational skills;

• Unaddressed drug and alcohol addictions;

• Inappropriate behavioral patterns;

• Lack of critical thinking skills;

• Underdeveloped life management skills;

• Mental health challenges.

The recidivism rate for inmates who have participated in one or more of the EBI programs (or the California state equivalent) addressing their specific needs are much lower than those of non-participating inmates.

Also, inmates who receive post-release help in their transition back into the community are far less likely to be re-arrested than those for whom support is not accepted or is not available. The Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department has been an active sponsor of educational programs and community transition partnerships for more than eleven years, and is now launching the Community Resource and Reentry Center (CRRC) that offers comprehensive support services and reentry success management. Recent scientific studies worldwide confirm that the combined effects of diversified, “wrap-around” education and behavioral therapy, together with strong community reentry support, can lower recidivism rates in the region of 25-30 percent. For that reason, EBI Bureau endorses and applies the growing body of evidence that our programs, both current and planned, are “Creating a Life Worth Living” for thousands of our inmate students.

 

A FEW WORDS ABOUT RECIDIVISM AND SAFER JAILS

“How many a dispute could have been deflated into a single paragraph if the disputants had dared to define their terms.”

Aristotle (384 BC -322 BC)

 

Recidivism.

At first glance, the word seems easy enough to define. Upon closer inspection, however, we begin to realize that the word resembles an onion, whose layers must be painstakingly removed, one by one. While researching this publication, it became clear that the word recidivism can mean a great many things to a great many people. Most of the confusion is brought about by the entities who define the term. For example, the State of California may define it one way, while the federal government defines it in another. For our purposes in the Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department, we have defined the term “recidivism” in the following manner:

 

“Those individuals who have been convicted and incarcerated for the commission of new crimes.”

 

Now that we have managed to “define our terms” regarding recidivism for LA County jail inmates, we can better prepare for how we will evaluate, analyze, and ultimately track recidivism rates for individuals who return to our jail system.

As one example of how this can be achieved, while reviewing records of inmates who have been involved in our MERIT Program, we selected a sampling of all inmates who had participated in the program over the past calendar year (September 2011 through August 2012). Out of the 1125 inmates who had participated in the program, we found that 569 had been released from custody. Out of that number, 209 have been rearrested and convicted of new crimes. This results in a recidivism rate of 36.7%.

 

CDCR RECIDIVISM RATE- MAY 2012    63%

STATE- HIGH RECIDIVISM RATE           78%

1 YEAR LASD MERIT STUDENT RATE   36.7%

 

While this review was in no way intended to be a definitive, empirical study, the numbers are nonetheless encouraging. In May of 2012, the State of California’s Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation reported a recidivism rate of slightly over 63% for inmates who had been reincarcerated for newly convicted crimes. This is in comparison to a Northern California county that has reported a state-wide high recidivism rate of 78%.

It is our intention to conduct periodic reviews of this type of information in order to gain better insight into the issue of recidivism. As we obtain additional information, it will be reported in future editions of this publication.

 Unlike the slippery fish term “recidivism,” the words “safer jails” are much more easily defined and readily

identified. This type of information is continually tracked and available to our Department for review and analysis. At the most recent Sheriff’s Critical Incident Forum (SCIF) meeting that was held for Custody Division in October of 2012, the following informational charts were presented: [see charts]

Total Force Incidents

Significant Force Incidents

 

As you can see by the above information, there are a number of positive things happening regarding force incidents in the LA County jail system. While much remains to be done, the results are encouraging and let us know we are on the right track regarding this troublesome issue. While there are a number of factors that affect this data, there can be no argument that since the advent of the Education Based Incarceration Bureau, statistical and anecdotal accounts show a definite trend toward our jails becoming safer places for inmates and staff alike.

 

A FINAL WORD

It is anticipated that by the early Spring of 2013, a new computerized system will come on line that will revolutionize the way our Department tracks inmates who participate in all programming within the LA County jail system. The new inmate program tracking system will let us know at a glance which inmates participate in which programs. We will be able to track classes, hours, certificates/training received, and ultimately be able to fine-tune our programs to individual inmate needs. In short, these are very exciting times for our Department as well as the Education Based Incarceration Bureau.

 

REFERENCES

1. Baca, Leroy D. “Education-Based Incarceration: A Reentry Plan – Changing the Way We Incarcerate.” Sheriff. National Sheriffs’ Association. Mar.-Apr. 2010.

2. Baca, Leroy D. “Expanding Partnerships and Leading the Charge to Reduce Recidivism.” California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation News. 6 Nov. 2007. California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation.

3. Baron, Mary, et al. Best Practices Manual for Discharge Planning: Mental Health & Substance Abuse Facilities, Hospitals, Foster Care, Prisons and Jails. Los Angeles Coalition to End Hunger & Homelessness. Aug. 2008: 50.

4. Bates, Dave, Brian Lendman, and Robby Ibelle. “Inmates Show They Have MERIT in the Los Angeles County Jail.” California Sheriff. California State Sheriffs’ Association. Vol. 25, No. 1. Jan. 2010: 26-27.

5. Bobb, Merrick J., et al. 26th Semiannual Report, Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department. Police Assessment Resource Center. Feb. 2009.

6. Burt, Martha R. “System Change Efforts and Their Results, Los Angeles, 2005-2006.” Hilton Foundation Project to End Homelessness Among People with Serious Mental Illness. Urban Institute. Apr. 2007: 16.

7. Burt, Martha R., et al. Strategies for Reducing Chronic Street Homelessness: Final Report. U.S. Department of Housing and Urban Development, Office of Policy Development and Research. The Urban Institute. Washington, D.C. Jan. 2004.

8. California Department of Corrections and Rehabilitation. “CDCR and LASD Community Transition Unit Collaborate to Create Reentry Council.” Press Release. 5 Oct. 2007.

9. Center, Brian. “Evidence-based Practice in Los Angeles County Corrections: A Top 5 List of Real-World Foes.”Large Jail Network Exchange. National Institute of Corrections. Annual Issue 2007: 31.

10. Corporation for Supportive Housing 8-09. Just In Reach – Los Angeles, California. 11. County of Los Angeles Department of Health Services. Office of AIDS Programs and Policy. “County of Los Angeles HIV Prevention Plan 2004-2008.”

12. Dalton, Karen S., Ph.D. “Unrecognized HIV Infection and HIV Incidence Among Recently Incarcerated Inmates in Los Angeles County.” 132nd Annual Meeting of the American Public Health Association. 6-10 Nov. 2004.

13. Dobuzinskis, Alex. “Inmates’ Success Brings out Tears.” Los Angeles Daily News. 15 June 2007.

14. Dolovich, Sharon (2012), Two Models of the Prison: Accidental Humanity and Hypermasculinity in the L.A. County Jail, The Journal of Criminal Law & Criminology, Northwestern University School of Law.

15. Erisman, Wendy and J. Contardo, (2005), Learning to Reduce Recidivism: A 50-State Analysis of Postsecondary Correctional Education Policy, Urban Institute, Washington, DC.

16. Fitch, Brian D. “Education-Based Incarceration: The Ultimate Crime Fighting Tool.” Deputy and Court Officer. National Sheriffs’ Association. 2010 No. 1.

17. Fitch, B.D., & Normore, A.H. (Eds.) (2012). Education based incarceration and recidivism: The ultimate social justice crime-fighting tool. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, Inc.

18. Harawa, N., Ph.D., et al. “Using Arrest Charge to Screen for Undiagnosed HIV Infection Among New Arrestees: A Study in Los Angeles County.” Journal of Correctional Health Care. Vol. 15, No. 2.

19. Honig, Robert. “Inmate Reentry Facility Proposed.” Pasadena Star News. 6 Oct. 2007. 20. Innes-Gomberg, Debbie, Ph.D. “Expanding Mental Health Services to Decrease Arrests: Collaborations with Law Enforcement.” Journal of National Alliance on Mental Illness. Sept. 2000.

21. Jackson, Charles M. Letter to Mitchell Netburn, Executive Director of the Los Angeles Homeless Services Authority (with attachment). 29 Jan. 2004.

22. Javanbakhi, Marjan, Ph.D., et al. “Sexually Transmitted Infections and HIV Prevalence Among Incarcerated Men (MSM), 2000-2005.” Journal of the American Sexually Transmitted Diseases Association. Vol. 36, No. 2. Feb. 2009: 517-521.

23. Jones, Arthur A., J.D., Dr.jur., R. Gordon & R. Haesly (2012), International and Comparative Best Practices in Education Based Incarceration, Chapter 9 of Education Based Incarceration and Recidivism: The ultimate justice crime-fighting tool. Charlotte, NC: Information Age Publishing, Inc.

24. Jones, Arthur A., J.D., and Robin Wiseman, J.D. “Community Transition Unit: Los Angeles County Sheriff Relies on Partnerships to Reduce Recidivism.” Community Links Magazine. COPS Bureau, U.S. Department of Justice. Sep. 2001: 2.

25. Jones, Arthur A., J.D., and Robin Wiseman, J.D. “Opposition to 2002-2003 Reductions in Funding of Anti- Recidivism Programs, Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department.” Los Angeles Daily News. 20 May 2002. Online. Los Angeles Community Policing.

26. Junor, Bruce. “A New and Real View to Veterans Help.” Soldiers for the Truth Defending America Newsletter. Online. 20 Dec. 2000.

27. “L.A. County Sheriff Launches Skills Program for Inmates.” L.A. Watts Times. 30 Nov. 2000.

28. County of Los Angeles Public Affairs. The County of Los Angeles Annual Report 2001-2002: 23.

29. Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department. “Formation of the Community Transition Unit.” News Release. 17 Nov. 2000.

30. Los Angeles Homeless Services Authority. 2007 Los Angeles Continuum of Care Application Exhibit I Narrative.13 June 2007: 100.

31. McGarry, Peggy. “Reducing Jail Overcrowding in Los Angeles.” A project of the Vera Institute of Justice. New York, N.Y., and Washington, D.C. 2009. Online.

32. McGuire, James, Ph.D., et al. “Health Status, Service Use, and Costs Among Veterans Receiving Outreach Services in Jail or Community Settings.” Psychiatric Services. Vol. 54, No. 2. Feb. 2003: 201-207.

33. Nakashima, John, et. al. “Outreach to Homeless Veterans in the Los Angeles County Jail: The VA Greater Los Angeles Healthcare Story.” Large Jail Network Exchange. 2006: 11-20.

34. Newton, Jim. “No Easy Fix for the Jail System.” Los Angeles Times. 30 Dec. 2006.

35. Osborne, Robert. “Los Angeles County Answering Service Solves Telephone Delays and Trains Inmates.” National Institute of Corrections. Washington, D.C. 1990.

36. Parker, Mike. “Los Angeles County Strengthens Partnerships Through its Community Transition Unit.” Large Jail Network Bulletin. 2001: 22-24.

37. Parker, Mike. “Operation Outreach: Homeless, Helpless or Hopeless?” Sheriff Times. 1996.

38. Petersilia, Joan, et al. “Profiling Inmates in the Los Angeles County Jails: Risks, Recidivism, and Release Options.” A RAND study funded by the National Institute of Justice/National Criminal Justice Reference Service. National Institute of Justice Research Review. Feb. 2002.

11. Criminal Justice Reference Service (NCJRS). May 2005: 33-34.

42. Shuster, Beth. “Jailhouse Rehabilitation for Batterers.” Los Angeles Times. 8 Jan. 2001.

43. Shuster, Beth. “Sheriff Launches Skills Program for Inmates.” Los Angeles Times. 22 Nov. 2000.

44. Wilson, Jeremy M., et al. “Homicide in the LASD Century Station Area.” Working paper for U.S. Department of Justice. RAND Corporation. (See “Education and Treatment.”) Jan. 2005: 15-16.

 

RECOGNITIONS

1. Los Angeles County Productivity and Quality Commission. 2012 Quality and Productivity Award for Education Based Incarceration- Facilitation.

2. National Association of Counties (NACO). 2012 Achievement Award: Folsom Project- Eye Glass Refurbishing Program.

3. National Association of Counties (NACO). 2012 Achievement Award: Education Based Incarceration - Facilitation.

4. Police Officers’ Association of Los Angeles County (POALAC). 2011 Centurion Award: Stop Hate and Respect Everyone (SHARE) Tolerance Program.

5. National Association of Counties (NACO). 2011 Achievement Award: Incarcerated Military Veteran Assistance Program.

6. Anti-Defamation League’s Helen and Joseph Sherwood Prize. 2010 Prize for Combating Hate.

7. National Association of Counties (NACO). 2010 Achievement Award: “Just in Reach” Program.

8. National Association of Counties (NACO). 2010 Achievement Award: Inmate Voting Eligibility Awareness.

9. National Association of Counties (NACO). 2009 Achievement Award: Women’s Reintegration Services.

10. Los Angeles County Quality and Productivity Commission. 2009 Quality and Productivity Arthur Gutenberg Best Overall Technology Award for Inmate Telephone Management System (ITMS). http://lacounty.gov

11. Los Angeles County Quality and Productivity Commission. 2009 Quality and Productivity Award for “Just in Reach.” Homeless Assistance Program. http://lacounty.gov

12. Los Angeles County Quality and Productivity Commission. 2009 Quality and Productivity Multi-Million Dollar Club Award for Inmate Telephone Management System (ITMS). http://lacounty.gov

13. Los Angeles County Quality and Productivity Commission. 2009 National Association of Counties for Women’s Reintegration Services program. http://lacounty.gov

14. Los Angeles County Quality and Productivity Commission. 2009 Quality and Productivity Special Merit Award for Adult Linkages with the Department of Public Social Services, Department of Public Health, Department of Mental Health, Department of Health Services, Probation Department, Department of Children and Family Services, and Department of Community and Senior Services. http://lacounty.gov

15. Los Angeles County Quality and Productivity Commission. 2009 Quality and Productivity Special Merit Award for Bringing Technology to the Jails. http://lacounty.gov

16. National Association of Counties (NACO). 2009 Achievement Award for “Women’s Reintegration Services.” http://www.naco.org

17. National Association of Counties (NACO). 2009 Best of Category Award for Women’s Reintegration Services Project. http://www.naco.org

18. Los Angeles County Quality and Productivity Commission. 2008 Quality and Productivity Top Ten Award for Women’s Reintegration Services, along with the Department of Mental Health, Department of Public Social Services, and Department of Children and Family Services. http://lacounty.gov

19. Los Angeles County Quality and Productivity Commission. 2007 “Leading the Quest for Excellence” Traditional Award presented to Department of Public Social Services and Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department for the Department of Public Social Services Homeless Release Project. http://lacounty.gov

20. Los Angeles County Quality and Productivity Commission. 2007 National Association of Counties for the “Jail In Reach.” http://lacounty.gov 21. Los Angeles County Quality and Productivity Commission. 2007 Quality and Productivity Award for Homeless

Release Project. http://lacounty.gov

22. Los Angeles County Quality and Productivity Commission. 2007 Traditional Award for Annual Health and Safety Fairs, Sheriff’s Department with Department of Public Health and community-based organizations. http://lacounty.gov

23. National Association of Counties (NACO). 2007 Achievement Award for Sheriff’s Department/Department of Public Social Services “Jail In Reach” Project. http://www.naco.org

24. National Association of Counties (NACO). 2007 Achievement Award for “The Link Program.” http://www.naco.org

25. California State Association of Counties. 2006 Challenge Award Honorable Mention for “Los Angeles County, the Center for Children of Incarcerated Parents We Care Program.” http://www.csac.counties.org

26. Los Angeles County Quality and Productivity Commission. 2006 Quality and Productivity Award for Jail Enterprise Unit. http://lacounty.gov

27. California State Association of Counties. 2005 Challenge Award Honorable Mention for “Los Angeles County Bridges to Recovery.” http://www.csac.counties.org

28. California State Association of Counties. 2005 Challenge Award Honorable Mention for “Los Angeles County Community Transition Unit.” http://www.csac.counties.org

29. California State Association of Counties. 2005 Challenge Award Honorable Mention for “Los Angeles County Inmate Services Unit – Making a Difference.” http://www.csac.counties.org

30. California State Association of Counties. 2005 Challenge Award Honorable Mention for “Los Angeles County Jail Health Information System.” http://www.csac.counties.org

31. Los Angeles County Quality and Productivity Commission. 2004 National Association of Counties for Community Transition Unit. http://lacounty.gov

32. Los Angeles County Quality and Productivity Commission. 2004 Quality and Productivity Award for Community Transition Unit. http://lacounty.gov

33. Los Angeles County Quality and Productivity Commission. 2004 Quality and Productivity Mega Million Platinum Eagle Dollar Award for Inmate Services Unit. http://lacounty.gov

34. Los Angeles County Quality and Productivity Commission. 2004 Top 10 Award for Jail HIV/AIDS Service Program (JHASP), Sheriff’s Department with Department of Health Services. http://lacounty.gov

35. National Association of Counties (NACO). 2004 Achievement Award for Custody Transition Unit for “Innovative program that enhanced government in the United States.” http://www.naco.org

36. Los Angeles County Quality and Productivity Commission. 2002 Quality and Productivity Top Ten Award for Veterans Module. http://lacounty.go

37. Los Angeles County Quality and Productivity Commission. 2001 and 2002 Top Ten Award for Veterans Module. http://lacounty.gov

38. Los Angeles County Quality and Productivity Commission. 2001 Quality and Productivity Award for Community Transition Unit. http://lacounty.gov

39. Los Angeles County Quality and Productivity Commission. 2000 “Strategic Odyssey” Award. http:// lacounty.gov

40. Urban Peace Award. 2000-2002 “Ameri-I-Can” Program. NCCF Print Shop

 

Acknowledgements


 

Leroy D. Baca, Sheriff

Paul K. Tanaka, Undersheriff

Cecil W. Rhambo, Assistant Sheriff

James J. Hellmold, Assistant Sheriff

Alexander R. Yim, Chief; Custody Division

Gerald K. Cooper Jr., Commander; Custody Division

Michael Bornman, Captain

Editor in Chief

Chairman of Book Committee

La Mar S. La Fave, Lieutenant

Managing Editor

Vice Chairman of Book Committee

Arthur A. Jones, J.D., Dr.jur.

Lead Contributing Editor

E.B.I. Book Committee:

Richard Weintraub, Director

Brant Choate, Director of Programs

Adrianne Ferree, Assistant Director of Programs

Edward Ramirez, Lieutenant

Mark Reynosa, Sergeant

Roel Garcia, Sergeant

David C. Bates, Senior Deputy

Randy Bell, Senior Deputy

Bart Lanni, Deputy

Graphic Arts Unit:

Sheryl Terrill, Graphic Specialist

Sheriff”s Headquarters Bureau

Photographers:

Jaime Lopez, Sheriff’s Photographer

Sheriff”s Headquarters Bureau

Eva Reynoso, Deputy Sheriff

Dellanira Aragon, Deputy Sheriff

Michael Frantantoni, Custody Assistant

Tabitha Youngstrom, Operations Assistant II

Christopher Jackson, Custody Assistant

LASD Print Shop:

Paul Kobe, Sergeant

Christine Badaracco, Bonus 1 Deputy Sheriff

Donald Lynn, Teacher, LA Works

Jim Peterson, Teacher, LA Work

Patrick O’Brien, Vocational Workshop Instructor

Daniel Gonzalez, Vocational Workshop Instructor


 

 

Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department • Custody Division • Education Based Incarceration Bureau

© Copyright 2013. Los Angeles County Sheriff’s Department. All Rights Reserved.

www.lasd.org www. EBI.LASD.org @EBILASD www.facebook.com/EBILASD

Printed at the LASD PDC/NCCF jail print shop. 3.2013




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